Which Agreement Were Reached At Yalta

“There is no doubt that the flow of Anglo-Soviet-American friendship has reached a new peak,” wrote James Byrnes, who accompanied Roosevelt to Kanta, in his memoirs. Although Roosevelt and Churchill also saw the Kanta Conference as an indication that their war cooperation with the Soviets would continue in peacetime, such optimistic hopes would prove short-lived. One of the most controversial topics of the Potsdam Conference concerned the revision of the German-Soviet-Polish borders and the expulsion of several million Germans from the disputed territories. In exchange for the territory it lost after the readjustment of the Soviet-Polish border with the Soviet Union, Poland received a large part of German territory and began to deport German inhabitants from the areas in question, as did other nations hosting large German minorities. The Potsdam negotiators were well aware of the situation, and although the British and Americans feared that a mass exodus of Germans to the Western occupation zones would destabilize them, they only declared that “all transfers that take place should be carried out in an orderly and humane manner” and asked the Poles to temporarily suspend the Czechoslovaks and Hungarians. In return, Stalin promised that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific War three months after Germany`s defeat. Later, in Potsdam, Stalin promised President Truman to respect the national unity of Korea, which would be partially occupied by Soviet troops. There were banquets where countless vodka toasts were drunk. Stalin once described Roosevelt as “the main forger of the instruments that led to the mobilization of the world against Hitler.” He called Churchill “the man born once every hundred years” and “the bravest statesman in the world.” The prime minister renounced vodka and was described by one of his advisers as a “bucket to drink Caucasian champagne that would harm the health of an ordinary man.” Roosevelt`s declining health was evident to everyone present. Accompanied by his daughter Anna, the 7,000-mile journey to Woalta had left the president energizing. The first reaction to the Woalta Agreements was solemn. Roosevelt and many other Americans saw this as proof that the spirit of U.S.-Soviet war cooperation would pass into the post-war period.

However, this feeling was short-lived. With the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 12, 1945, Harry S. Truman became the thirty-third President of the United States. At the end of April, the new government clashed with the Soviets over its influence in Eastern Europe and the United Nations. Alarmed by the perceived lack of cooperation on the part of the Soviets, many Americans began to criticize Roosevelt`s handling of the Kanta negotiations. To this day, many of Roosevelt`s most vocal critics accuse him of “handing over” Eastern Europe and Northeast Asia to the Soviet Union at Kanta, even though the Soviets made many important concessions. Allied leaders came to Jaftal knowing that an Allied victory in Europe was virtually inevitable, but less convinced that the Pacific War was coming to an end. Recognizing that a victory over Japan might require a protracted struggle, the United States and Britain saw a great strategic advantage for Soviet involvement in the Pacific theater. In Kanta, Roosevelt and Churchill discussed with Stalin the conditions under which the Soviet Union would go to war with Japan, and all three agreed that the Soviets would be granted a sphere of influence in Manchuria in exchange for potentially decisive Soviet involvement in the Pacific theater after Japan`s surrender. These include the southern part of Sakhalin, a lease at Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou), participation in the operation of the Manschur and Kuril Railways. This agreement was the most important concrete achievement of the Yalta Conference.

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